Exploring biopsychosocial risk factors and interactions in health, well-being and illness
We know that there are many risk factors for mental health, some of which may arise from early "adverse events" (negative occurrences, which might include deprivation, abuse or trauma), chronic illness, or neurological changes occurring later in life as we age or develop conditions such as dementia. However, most projects exploring these difficulties have studied a small number of people or in very specific situations, which makes it difficult to extend those findings to wider populations. Other projects have used a very restricted range of research methods or "outcome measures" (the tools we use to assess well-being, like questionnaires). This makes it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions, well-founded in evidence.
In our proposed project, we aim to deepen our understanding of associations between mental well-being factors (such as mental health and problems with thinking or "cognition"), genetic makeup, key biopsychosocial variables like changes in physical health, development of neurological conditions like dementia, and early adverse events like trauma and abuse. This will allow us to identify risk and resilience factors for psychological functioning, physical health and well-being. For example, the nature of mental health (e.g., depression, subjective well-being) will be explored by examining the independent and interactive effects of key social (isolation, support, connectedness) and physical (self-report, medical diagnoses, and performance-based) variables. In addition, we will consider the experiences and outcomes of people who experienced early adverse events such as child abuse, and examine potential protective factors such as higher education or social support. As a third example, a developing literature associates poor cardiovascular health and poor sleep with cognitive difficulties in ageing and neurological conditions, but this is yet to be explored in a large dataset. Finally, we will also explore the associations between genetic makeup, physical health and mental well-being.
Over three years, we will conduct a planned series of data analyses to achieve a complete understanding of the factors associated with cognitive and mental health, as well as the consequences of adverse life events. This will lead to the publication of multiple academic papers. We will also seek to disseminate our findings through non-academic routes to maximise engagement of clinicians (e.g., medical professionals, practitioner psychologists), third sector organisations and individuals affected by difficulties with mental well-being and cognition. This ensures the maximum meaningful impact of our findings, including potential contributions to designing mental and physical health interventions and programs to support those coping with adversity.